The problem: No such weapons existed.
Hitler’s advisers told him that, as people realized this, morale would plummet. But Hitler was so committed to his lie that he never rescinded it, even as the Allies swept into Berlin.
That’s an extreme case study. But it serves as a cautionary tale to leaders who are tempted to overpromise. Lying and optimism are not the same thing.
—Adapted from Inside the Third Reich, Albert Speer, MacMillan.