Through broken treaties and broken promises, Joseph still stands as an icon of bravery, compassion and leadership. Some examples:
- When white settlers killed a Wallowa tribesman in a dispute over horses, Joseph was promised an investigation. When nothing happened, he told the settlers they’d have to leave. Still, nothing happened. But Joseph refused to retaliate.
“We could have avenged our wrongs many times, but we did not,” Joseph later said. “The Nez Perce wish to live in peace.”
- At one point the Nez Perce were ordered to move immediately to a reservation. A general escorted Joseph there, but the only acceptable site already had Indians and whites living on it. The general offered to remove them but Joseph declined.
“It would be wrong to disturb these people,” Joseph said. “I have no right to take their homes. I have never taken what did not belong to me. I will not now.”
- Even as his people were herded to reservations, Joseph kept petitioning for their release.
“You may as well expect the rivers to run backward,” said Joseph, “as that any man who was born free should be contented while penned up.”
- The U.S. Army colonel to whom Joseph eventually surrendered called him “a man of more sagacity and intelligence than any Indian I have ever met.” Even Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman lauded the tribe as honorable and brave, but then overrode a promise to let them go home.
“When will those white chiefs begin to tell the truth?” Joseph asked.
“My heart is sick and sore,” he said. “From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more, forever.”
—Adapted from Chief Joseph: Guardian of the People, Candy Moulton, Forge/Tom Doherty Associates.