Pennsylvania mirrors America's growing diversity in many ways. Today, mosques occupy old churches; co-workers wear burqas and yarmulkes; and some employees request "prayer breaks."
Religious diversity is a reason for celebration in a pluralistic society, but it also presents challenges in the workplace. The number of religious discrimination claims filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) has more than doubled in the past year.
Furthermore, the courts have not offered clear guidance to employers when dealing with religious issues. And Congress is considering legislation, led by Pennsylvania Senator Rick Santorum (R), that would require employers to make ADA-style reasonable accommodations for employees' religious practices.
5 steps to compliance
Most employers understand the basics: Federal law (Title VII of the Civil Rights Act) says it's illegal to discriminate based on a person's religion in hiring, firing, promotion, pay, benefits and other work conditions. The law covers employers of 15 or more people.
To comply with the federal law, follow these guidelines:
1. Beware less-obvious bias. For example, you can't refuse to assign a certain employee to a favorable shift because you fear his or her religious needs will cause an absence problem.
2. Don't push any one religion. Employers can't force employees to participate in a religious activity as a condition of employment. Conversely, they can't punish employees for participation in a religious activity.
3. Don't limit religious expression. Permit employees to engage in religious expression unless it would impose an undue hardship on your organization.
4. Accommodate "sincere" beliefs. Employers must accommodate employees "sincerely held" religious beliefs or practices unless they create an undue hardship.
Accommodation examples: changing an employee's schedule to allow her to attend a religious service, allowing voluntary schedule swaps with co-workers, and modifying workplace rules, such as dress or grooming requirements.
The EEOC this year sued UPS for refusing to hire a Rastafarian as a driver because of his beard, which he wore for religious reasons.
One point: While the law says you must accommodate "sincerely held" beliefs, the EEOC doesn't require employees to actually be card-carrying members of a religion to hold sincere beliefs of that religion (and earn protection under the law). So don't try to analyze whether an employee's belief is sincere or not; when in doubt, accommodate.
5. Prevent harassment. You must take steps to prevent religious harassment of employees and stop it when you become aware it has occurred.
Pennsylvania residents: top 5 religions:
No religion 12%
Online resources: For more advice on complying with religious-accommodation law, check out these sites:
- EEOC: www.eeoc.gov/types/religion.html
- Justice Department: www.usdoj.gov/crt/religdisc/religdisc.html
- Employment Law Information Network: www.elinfonet.com/fedindex/18
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